The field of catecholamine research has not undergone comprehensive updating for 10 years.
Meanwhile a tremendous amount of new information has emerged from genetic, molecular, neurochemical, nuclear scanning, pharmacologic, and other modalities, confirming key roles of catecholamine systems in a variety of clinical phenomena in neurology, psychiatry, cardiology, endocrinology & metabolism, drug and alcohol abuse, multi-system diseases, and general medicine. The XICS will  provide this update.